The Middle East is one of the regions in the world with severe water scarcity, where the climate is hot, precipitation is scarce and the land is arid, but the local oil resources are abundant and the economy is strong, so there is an urgent need for desalination technology and devices.
It has the economic basis for the development of desalination industrialization. Only this region of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, and Bahrain five countries desalination device total water production, accounting for 44.3% of the global total, in the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf, some countries have desalinated seawater volume accounted for 80-90% of the country’s freshwater use.
In contrast, in the birthplace of the world’s first modern desalination plant in the United States, the total amount of desalinated water accounts for only 18% of the global total, and 70% of Israel’s water comes from desalination, which has also produced the world’s leading desalination company (IDE)
Saudi Arabia’s annual rainfall is only 100mm, half of its land area is desert, and the per capita possession of water resources is only 1.2% of the world average, the Saudi government, in order to solve the serious water shortage problem, has invested heavily to build 25 large desalination plants, achieving a desalination capacity of 5250000m³/d, and the total water production accounts for about 25.9% of the world’s total desalination The capacity of the desalination plant is the first in the world.
The UAE has less than 900m³ of water resources per capita and is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world. In order to meet the huge domestic demand for fresh water, the two emirates of UAE – Abu Dhabi and Dubai jointly invested USD 40 billion in desalination projects in 2009.
So far, the UAE has 30 desalination plants with an annual capacity of 300,000,000m³, which can meet 98% of the country’s domestic and industrial water consumption, ranking second in the world in terms of capacity.
The current situation of desalination in China
(a) Chinese seawater desalination research was first conducted in 1958 by the Second Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration in China on ion exchange membrane electrodialysis seawater desalination.
in 1965, Shandong Ocean Institute was the first to conduct research on reverse osmosis CA asymmetric membrane in China.
in 1970, the main force of seawater desalination meeting gathered in Hangzhou and organized the first national seawater desalination research laboratory
In 1981 the first desalination station with a daily output of 200 tons of electrodialysis was built in the Xisha Islands
In 1982 Hangzhou Water Treatment Technology Research and Development Center was established
1984 State Oceanic Administration started the research of seawater desalination devices by distillation method